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ETHANOL WORLDWIDE

Other countries are either producing and using ethanol in large quantities or are providing incentives to expand ethanol production and use. Brazil and Sweden are using large quantities of ethanol as a fuel. Some Canadian provinces promote ethanol use as a fuel by offering subsidies of up to 45 cents per gallon of ethanol.

India is initiating the use of ethanol as an automotive fuel. A move has been made by distilleries in India to use surplus alcohol as a blending agent or an oxygenate in gasoline. Based on experiments by the Indian Institute of Petroleum, a 10 percent ethanol blend with gasoline and a 15 percent ethanol blend with diesel are being considered for use in vehicles in at least one state.

In France, ethanol is produced from grapes that are of insufficient quality for wine production. Prompted by the increase in oil prices in the 1970s, Brazil introduced a program to produce ethanol for use in automobiles in order to reduce oil imports. Brazilian ethanol is made mainly from sugar cane. Pure ethanol (100% ethanol) is used in approximately 40 percent of the cars in Brazil. The remaining vehicles use blends of 24 percent ethanol with 76 percent gasoline. Brazil consumes nearly 4 billion gallons of ethanol annually. In addition to consumption, Brazil also exports ethanol to other countries.

Sweden has used ethanol in chemical production for many years. As a result, Sweden’s crude oil consumption has been cut in half since 1980. During the same time period, the use of gasoline and diesel for transportation has also increased. Emissions have been reduced by placing catalytic converters in vehicle exhaust systems which decrease carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions. To address global warming concerns, the amount of carbon dioxide produced while burning fossil fuels must be reduced. Ethanol-blended gasoline and ethanol-blended diesel are being considered as viable alternatives to further lower emission levels.
 


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